The parotid and submaxillary salivary glands lie posterior to and beneath the mandible respectively. The thyroid gland flanks the larynx and upper trachea, connected by a thin isthmus across the second tracheal ring. The stylohyoid and digastric are two of seven pairs of muscles attaching to the hyoid.
The internal jugular veins are the main venous conduits of the head. They cross the carotids superficially and diagonally in their course from the jugular foramen at the base of the skull. Their large common facial branch lies over the carotid bifurcation and must be divided to gain access to the latter structure. The middle thyroid vein must be divided to gain access to the posterior aspect of the visceral compartment, for example to approach a Zenkerís diverticulum. The internal jugulars converge with the subclavians behind the heads of the clavicles.
The narrow center of the omohyoid muscle crosses the jugular bulb at the base of the neck. The strap muscles cover the larynx and cervical trachea and depress the laryngeal apparatus. The neck has the largest concentration of lymph nodes in the body with the internal jugular chain constituting the largest final common pathway.