c l i n i c a l f o l i o s : n a r r a t i v e





A D V E R T I S E M E N T

 

Tracheoesophageal Fistula: 4

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

   
 

About 50% of infants with tracheoesophageal complex defects have associated anomalies. The baby had cupping of the ears and coloboma, raising the possibility of the CHARGE complex (choanal atresia, hearing defect, heart defects, retardation, GU anomalies and ear anomalies). VACTERL anomalies include vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, renal anomalies and radial limb defects.      

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Tracheoesophageal Fistula: 5

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

   
 

The tracheal groove appears in the ventral wall of the embryonic foregut about day 23. Lateral ridges separate the trachea from the esophagus from caudal to cranial as the trachea and esophagus elongate over the succeeding 10 days.  Incomplete separation results in tracheoesophageal fistula. Disproportionate assumption of tracheoesophageal complex tissue by the trachea is thought to result in associated esophageal atresia (Skandalakis).      

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Tracheoesophageal Fistula: 6

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

   
 

A variety of tracheoesophageal malformations are seen. The Gross classification categories are shown with relative frequencies. The most commonly seen pattern is type C, blind dilated proximal pouch with distal tracheoesophageal fistula. Occasionally, the distal segment may attach to a bronchus rather than the trachea. The type E pattern, fistula without esophageal atresia is referred to as an H-type fistula. When esophageal atresia is present, the ends vary in their distance apart.      

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This page was last modified on 12/7/2001.