The sigmoid was packed upward with a green towel, and a malleable retractor bent into a C-shape was placed to hold it in place. Note the left iliac artery in the center of the field. The anesthesiologist was alerted to watch for decreased venous return from potential iliac compression.
The posterior dissection was continued into the sacral hollow, taking a safe margin of mesentery, but being respectful of the pre-sacral space containing the sacral venous plexus and pelvic sympathetic nerve complexes. Note the ligated stump of the superior rectal.
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