The sciatic nerve passes from the greater sciatic foramen beneath the piriformis muscle, crosses the quadratus femoris and passes 2/3 of the way down the posterior thigh lying on the adductor magnus. There it divides into tibial and peroneal branches. It is accompanied by the inferior gluteal artery. It innervates the adductor magnus and hamstrings. The short head of the biceps femoris is supplied by the common peroneal division.
The common femoral artery gives off the large profunda branch shortly after emerging beneath the inguinal ligament. The profunda descends on the adductor muscles medial to the thigh, giving off perforating branches which pass through the adductor tendon to the posterior compartment of the thigh. Early in its course, the profunda gives off the medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries.
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